What material is the universe made of? This still is the biggest challenging question for scientists today. We all know that it all started with the Big Bang. In the currently popular model of the Universe, 70% is thought to be dark energy, 25% dark matter, and 5% normal matter, but the reality is we still do not know much about the universe. Some scientists do not even consider the big bang to be true. What can we call this element of creating the universe? Can we call it the dark side of the universe? Or a mystery of the universe which has created a major problem before scientists. Even in this modern age, we do not know what objects make up 95% of the universe. Let us know this in more detail –
What is most of the universe made of?
The atoms which form everything around us, are only 5%. In the last 80 years, it has become clear that enough of the remaining parts of the universe are made up of two matters which are called Dark matter and Dark energy. The first, discovered in 1933, is an invisible gum that works with galaxies and galaxy clusters. It was unveiled in 1998 that it was giving more momentum to the expansion of the universe. Astronomers have now started to identify these unseen interlopers correctly.
Over the history of the universe, the proportions of all types of matter and energy have changed. In the past 2 billion years the total amount of electromagnetic radiation generated within the universe has decreased by 1/2. Nowadays, ordinary matter, which includes atoms, stars, galaxies, and life, accounts for only 4.9% of the contents of the Universe. The present overall density of this type of matter is very low, roughly 4.5 × 10−31 grams per cubic centimeter, corresponding to a density of the order of only one proton for every four cubic meters of volume. The nature of both dark energy and dark matter is unknown. Dark matter, a mysterious form of matter that has not yet been identified, accounts for 26.8% of the cosmic contents. Dark energy, which is the energy of space and is causing the expansion of the universe to accelerate, accounts for the remaining 68.3% of the contents.
Most scientists claim that the universe is composed almost completely of dark energy, dark matter, and ordinary matter. Other contents are electromagnetic radiation (estimated to constitute from 0.005% to close to 0.01% of the total mass-energy of the universe) and antimatter. But there are still many others who have different theories about the composition of the universe.
Thus in the last 40 years, astronomers have faced a dilemma problem. Because they tried to determine the building blocks of the universe. Before that, he thought that there was something common in the universe – the same baryonic matter that we could see. Look through the telescope into the universe, and things like that seem obvious. But then the discovery of Dark matter and Dark energy surprised everyone.
Dark Matters and Dark energy
The existence of Dark Matters and Dark energy is still being debated by theologians and theoretical physicists. In June 2001, NASA launched the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, or WMAP, where the devices took the most detailed picture of the cosmic microwave background as “bizarre radiation emanating from the Big Bang. It allowed scientists to measure the accuracy, density, and composition of the universe Enabling. Here is determined by WMAP: Baryonic matter makes up only 4.6 percent of the universe. Dark Matters Part F of 23 percent and “72% of Dark Energy.
Measuring the relative proportions of the building blocks of the universe is just the beginning, now hoping to identify potential candidates for Dark matters. He considers Brown dwarf an admirable candidate. Brown dwarfs are objects in the universe like stars, but their intense gravity, which affects nearby objects, provides clues about their existence and location. Supermassive black holes also account for matter deep in the universe. Scientists have speculated that these cosmic sinkholes may power distant quasars and be more abundant than they ever imagined.
Finally, Dark matters may not include a type of particle not yet described. These tiny bits of matter are somewhere deep in an atom and can be detected in one of the world’s super-colliders, such as the Large Hadron Collider.
Is the universe made up of billions of galaxies?
There are billions of galaxies, each filled with billions of stars, some of which contain elliptical orbits of stars, planets, and their moons and that can be detected. In between those large, spherical bodies are irregularly shaped objects, ranging from giant asteroids to rock-shaped meteors, to smaller particles than grains of dust. Astronomers classify all of these as baryonic matter, and we know the most fundamental unit of this as an atom, which itself is made up of small subatomic particles such as protons, neutrons, and electrons.
To know what the universe is made of, from the 1970s onwards, scientists started collecting evidence that we can compare the universe with our own eyes or not (Friends, seeing with eyes here means that all those The use of machines and equipment that humans have made). And then one of the biggest clues came when scientists tried to find “Aliens” on other houses in the galaxies.
Scientists did this by measuring the acceleration of clouds orbiting the outer edges of the galaxy, enabling them to calculate the correct mass to cause that acceleration. What he found was surprising. The mass behind the orbital acceleration of the galaxy’s clouds was five times larger than the common mass, which could be explained by studying the stars and gas circulating in the galaxies. He noticed that there is some invisible material around the galaxy, which holds the entire Brahmin together. He named it physical dark matter. And thus found the basis for the term used by Swiss astronomer Fritz Zwicky in the 1930s.
Type Ia supernova
20 years later, scientists noticed that the Type Ia supernova, “dying stars, all others, are the same intrinsic radiance” and that is becoming distant from our galaxy. Explaining this observation, they explained that the expansion of the universe is indeed fast and that the acceleration of the universe is indeed terrible because the underlying gravity in dark matters must have been strong enough to prevent such expansion. Will some other material, with some antigravity effect, lead to a faster expansion of the universe? well, Scientists believed so, and they called the material “dark matters”.
What material is the universe made of? Solving this mystery is one of science’s top priorities. Until the solution comes, we have to live with the thinking that what we have been trying to know for a few years is heavier than us and is full of more problems beyond our comprehension. But still humans overcome all kinds of troubles and one day we will definitely find answers to this question.
- “Physics – for the 21st Century”. www.learner.org. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics Annenberg Learner. Archived from the original on September 7, 2015. Accessed July 27, 2019.
- “Dark matter – A history shapes by dark force”. Timothy Ferris. National Geographic. 2015. Accessed July 28, 2019.
- Redd, SPACE.com, Nola Taylor. “It’s Official: The Universe Is Dying Slowly”. Accessed July 27, 2019.
- “First Planck results: the universe is still weird and interesting”. Matthew Francis. Ars Technica. March 21, 2013. Accessed July 29, 2019.
- NASA/WMAP Science Team (January 24, 2014). “Universe 101: What is the Universe Made Of?”. NASA. Accessed July 29, 2019.
- Fountain, Henry (October 17, 2016). “Two Trillion Galaxies, at the Very Least”. The New York Times. Accessed July 27, 2019.
- Staff (2019). “How Many Stars Are There In The Universe?”. European Space Agency. Accessed July 29, 2019.
- “Unveiling the Secret of a Virgo Dwarf Galaxy”. European Southern Observatory Press Release. ESO: 12. May 3, 2000. Bibcode:2000eso..pres…12. Accessed July 30, 2019.
- “Hubble’s Largest Galaxy Portrait Offers a New High-Definition View”. NASA. February 28, 2006. Accessed July 30, 2019.
- Gibney, Elizabeth (September 3, 2014). “Earth’s new address: ‘Solar System, Milky Way, Laniakea'”. Nature. DOI:10.1038/nature.2014.15819. Accessed July 30, 2019.
- “Local Group”. Fraser Cain. Universe Today. May 4, 2009. Archived from the original on June 21, 2018. Accessed July 30, 2019.
This Article was Published On: 16 January, 2019 And Last Modified On: 13 July, 2021
Please Like and Share this Article with your friends and family because sharing is caring. You can also follow us on social media platforms where we share more fascinating and unrevealed stories and posts. Thanks! for reading.