Soviet Space Program

The Soviet Space Program is the Roscosmos State Corporation, commonly known as Roscosmos (Russian: Роскосмос), a state corporation offering a wide range of space flights and cosmonautics programs to the Russian Federation. And is responsible for the type. Under this, the Soviet Space Program included several rocket space programs and space activities by the Soviet Union (USSR) from the 1930s until its collapse in 1991.

Soviet Space Program’s History –

In its 60-year history, the Soviet Space Program has achieved several pioneering achievements in space flight, including the first intercontinental ballistic missile (R-7), the first satellite (Sputnik 1), the first animal on Earth’s orbit (the dog Laika on Sputnik 2) is included. First human in space and Earth orbit (cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin on Vostok 1), the first woman in space and orbit of the earth (cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkova on Vostok 6), first spacewalk (cosmonaut Alexei Leonov on Voskhod 2), first moon impact (Luna 2), the farthest image of the Moon (Luna 3) and unmanned lunar soft landing (Luna 9), the first space rover (Lunokhod 1), the first sample of lunar soil was automatically extracted and brought to Earth (Luna 16 ), And the first space station (Salyut 1). Further notable records include the investigation of the first planets: Venera 3 and Mars 2 to affect Venera 1 and Mars 1 by Venus and Mars, respectively, and Venera 7 to create soft planets on these planets. Includes Mars 3.

First Sputnik in low earth orbit

The Soviet space program truly came into the world on October 4, 1957, with the launch of the first Sputnik into the Earth’s lower orbit. This space program of the Soviet created a worldwide sensation. And inspired all the countries around the world to accelerate their space program.

Initial success

Moving forward in the glow of its initial success, the Soviet Union made it clear around the world that is intended to enhance its image as a technological, scientific, and military force worldwide. In the mid-1960s, the Soviet Union expanded the objectives of its space program by launching new types of satellites with practical military and economic applications.

While those directed toward meteorology and civil communications received considerable publicity, such as photographic and ELINT pre-testing, radar calibration, clandestine communications, navigation, geodesy, and others designed for satellite interception, an ongoing program of scientific research Was depicted as part of. Their real purpose was in large part of a military nature.

In the early 1960s, the Soviet Union began testing larger and more complex space boosters and spacecraft, but serious failures hindered their progress. For example, their failure to adequately develop a booster for unmanned lunar missions, and the Soviet leadership with the Apollo project led the Soviets to shift the emphasis of their man and space program to redirecting space stations orbiting the Earth. Inspired for.

From the early 1970s, the Soviet Union focused on space systems for military assistance. He improved the capacity of his ELINT and photo pre-test satellites and built a geosynchronous communications satellite network. He also sought to maintain the Soviet image in space by heavily promoting the missions of the Salute space station.

Manned orbital space station

Soviet Union’s interest in building manned orbital space stations peaked in 1896 when Konstantin Tsiolkovsky — the so-called father of Soviet space flight — described such an undertaking in his book, “Beyond the Planet Earth” In which he has views of four meters of several cylinders. Vyasa is connected in the earth’s orbit. They have already acquired part of it by docking the Salute 6 space station with COSMOS 1267, a new space station module.

In 1969 Leonid Brezhnev stated that orbital space stations with replaceable crews were highways in man’s space. The Soviet Union put its first space station Salyut-1 into orbit in 1971. Since then, despite two failures, they have successfully circled a total of six.

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As mentioned at the beginning of this presentation, Soviet space efforts can be divided into two parts: military and scientific. This is also true within the manned space station program. While Salyut’s 1, 4, and 6 are all associated with scientific research – with some military applications – Salyut’s 2, 3, and 5 are part of the military program.

Manned space flight

As an example of increasing proficiency in manned space flight in Soviet space, it is notable that Salyut 6 has been in orbit for the past several years and has hosted both Soviet and non-Soviet visitors during that time. 28 different cosmonauts have visited Salyut 6. Nine of these were non-Soviet. They spent a total of 2,117 man-days or about seven man-years in space and spent 44% of the time in orbit at the station.

Soviet Space Program and Personality

The Soviet Space Program is described as a double personality. It is made up of two parts, one of which is visible and acceptable to the whole world. While the other is a very secrecy space program, which most people do not know. In this article, we will look at both sides and come to some conclusions about where the Soviet Space Program is in its program today and where it is going in the future.

Space Program Running in Privacy

It is still true that Salyut 6 also serves some military purposes, but as a mostly observational nature, the Soviets choose their purely scientific nature, such as biomedical research, earth resource studies, and materials processing. Here again, we take note of the double personality of the Soviet space program.

Within the Soviet space program, the military effort is by far the most active work, typically accounting for about 70% of the launches each year. Conversely, although the number of dual military-civilian missions has increased significantly since the early 1960s, they still account for about 15% of the annual total and less than 15% of purely scientific missions. . American programs, on the other hand, are equally divided between military and non-military projects.

During the 24 years of their space program, there has been no significant change in the Soviets of the high-level standardized development process. It usually covers a gap of 10–15 years ranging from decisions to final development. And this is definitely to prevent any major blocking.

Although their system of development has some inherent advantages, such as centralized bureaucratic direction, it is neither malleable nor conducive and cannot identify and solve complex problems in a short period. The Soviet Union has continued to expand its aerospace industry to design and produce space systems.

Soviet Space Program Secrecy

The Soviet space program had withheld from the world the information related to the success of Sputnik, the world’s first manned satellite. When the Sputnik project was first approved, one of the most immediate courses of action by Politburo was to consider what the world had to announce about their event.

Thus the Telegraph Agency (TASS) of the Soviet Union set precedents for all official announcements on the Soviet space program. The information released eventually did not inform the world as to who created and launched the satellite and why. Public information released, however, suggests that the press release contained an abundance of scientific and technical data and vague indications of Soviet cosmonautics’ pride and prospects.

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The Soviet Space Program secrecy serves as a tool to prevent leaks of classified information between countries and to create a mysterious barrier between the space program and Soviet ordinary citizens. The nature of the Space Program adopted ambiguous messages concerning its goals, successes, and values. This Space Program itself was so secret that a regular Soviet citizen could never get a concrete image of it, but simply a superficial picture of its history, current activities, or future endeavors.

Any launch was announced after the launch. The names of the cosmonauts were not released until they took flight. Mission details were also very secretive. Except for the first Sputnik, lunar probe, and Venus probe, outside observers did not even know the size or other information of their rockets or cabins or most of their spacecraft.

Due to the double personality of the Soviets, the Soviet Space Program faced a paradox. On the one hand, the authorities attempted to promote the space program by linking their successes often with the strength of socialism. On the other hand, the same officials understood the importance of privacy in the context of the Cold War. This strain on privacy in the USSR can be understood as a way to protect against its strengths and weaknesses.

However, military influence over the Soviet Space Program may be the best explanation for this secrecy. The Soviet Space Program was secretly carried out in military development, which no one knew. Soviet defense factories were known by numbers rather than names since 1927. Even these internal codes were publicly disrupted. Employees had to use a different code, a set of special post-office numbers, to identify factories, institutions, and departments.

The public utterances of the Space Program were equally positive: as far as people knew, the Soviet Space Program had never experienced failure. According to historian James Andrews, “almost no exception, coverage of Soviet space exploits, especially in the case of manned space missions, concealed reports of failure or trouble.”

The USSR was described by Winston Churchill as a mystery-wrapped puzzle, although the space race was played off the top of our heads, it was often obscured by a rhetorical ‘space curtain’ to see A lot of effort was made.


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