Image 1: Color photo of Eldridge Serving in the Greek Navy as the HNS Leon D54
Image 1: Color photo of Eldridge Serving in the Greek Navy as the HNS Leon D54 | Shortly after being transferred to the Greek Navy, the HNS Leon D-54 formerly the USS Eldridge DE-173 is seen underway with the HNS Panthir D-67 formerly the USS Garfield Thomas DE-193.

Philadelphia Experiment, A conspiracy theory that is widely considered a hoax. In 1955 with a letter from a person named Carlos Allende, the story of the Philadelphia experiment appeared. In his letter, Allende said that he was on board the U.S. Naval force transport, the USS Furuseth, when he saw the USS Eldridge vanish and return directly before his eyes; he called this the Philadelphia Experiment. He additionally said this was proof that Albert Einstein had understood the bound-together field hypothesis and that the U.S. government was subtly utilizing this information to explore different avenues regarding Teleportation and Intangibility. What was Philadelphia Experiment? Let’s know

Philadelphia Experiment background

The Philadelphia Experiment is the name that usually has been given to a supposed Top-Secret analysis/experiment directed by the United States Navy in 1943 in which the Destroyer Escort USS Eldridge, equipped with a few tons of particular gadgets and hardware capable of creating a tremendous pulsating magnetic field around itself, was first made invisible and then transported, in a matter of moments, from the Philadelphia Navy Yard to the Norfolk Docks and back again, a total distance of over 400 miles (640 kilometers).

USS Eldridge DE-173 (1944)
USS Eldridge DE-173 (1944)

The Philadelphia Experiment is a supposed military examination expected to have been completed by the U.S. Naval force at the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, at some point around October 28, 1943. But the United States government, throughout the previous years, has formally denied that this examination at any issue occurred.

Challenging this statement, As Incident left many unanswered questions behind:

  • What caused the death of some of the crew members aboard the ship in a safe and secure harbor?
  • For what reason was the rest of the team released as medicinally unfit?
  • On the off chance that one reason that the Philadelphia Experiment did indeed happen, at that point, was the less-than-ideal passing of an autonomous analyst exploring the supposed trial certainly suicide?
  • How could the Navy perhaps achieve such an incredible test?
  • The story starts with Morris Ketchum Jessup, a stargazing and arithmetic Professor at the University of Michigan.

The Philadelphia Experiment story previously showed up in 1955 in letters of obscure beginning sent to a space expert and essayist, Morris K. Jessup, by Carlos Allende. This story is widely understood as a hoax. Still, the U.S. Naval force maintains that no such trial was ever led and says that the story’s details contradict well-established facts about USS Eldridge and that alleged claims do not comply with known physical laws.

“In his letter, Allende said that he was on board the U.S. Naval force transport the USS Furuseth when he saw the USS Eldridge vanish and return directly before his eyes; he called this the Philadelphia Experiment. He also said this was proof that Albert Einstein understood the bound together field hypothesis and that the U.S. government was subtly utilizing this information to explore different avenues regarding Teleportation and Intangibility.” Learn more about the letters of Carlos Miguel Allende here – https://www.de173.com/carl-allen/

Beginning of the theory

Letters from Carlos Miguel Allende to Morris K. Jessup

The theory of the Philadelphia experiment appeared in 1955 when stargazer and UFO analyst and the writer of the book “The Case for the UFOMorris K. Jessup, got two letters from Carlos Miguel Allende (who likewise distinguished himself as “Carl M. Allen” in another correspondence) who professed to have seen a mystery World War II experiment at the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard. Allende also announced that the destroyer escort USS Eldridge was rendered invisible, transported in a matter of moments from the Philadelphia Navy Yard to the Norfolk Docks and back again, teleported to another dimension, and teleported through Time, resulting in the deaths of several sailors. Some of them were fused with the ship’s hull.

Carlos Miguel Allende (who likewise distinguished himself as "Carl M. Allen" in another correspondence)
Carlos Miguel Allende (who likewise distinguished himself as “Carl M. Allen” in another correspondence)
writer of the book "The Case for the UFO" Morris K. Jessup
The writer of the book “The Case for the UFOMorris K. Jessup

A mysterious correspondence from a man who talked like he knew intimately about levitation, disappearing ships, and invisible men. He wrote in different color inks and with a style that would not win any good grades anywhere. Jessup, meanwhile, was busy with his agents in New York to run the publicity circuit and get a new book out. But he wanted to make some cash and return to his research. It would have been easy to forget the whole Allende matter. Still, Jessup sent him a postcard asking for more details, and five months later, he received a new letter with the same information; Allende’s claims were mind-bending. Still, as Allende never provided further details, Jessup dismissed Allende as a crazy or foolish person.

Jessup’s book “The Case for the UFO” and Office of Naval Research, Washington

In early 1956 a copy of Jessup’s book “The Case for the UFO” arrived at the Office of Naval Research (ONR). Washington, D.C. However, this was not an ordinary copy as it had been sent to Admiral N. Furth in a manila envelope and marked “Happy Easter.” The book itself was well-worn and contained handwritten comments at the pages’ top, bottom, and margins. The words were written in three different colors of ink as if the book had been passed back and forth between three people registered with three different shades of pink ink, appearing to detail a correspondence among three individuals, only one of whom is given a name: “Jemi.” The ONR labeled the other two “Mr. A.” and “Mr. B.”.

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The comments suggested a knowledge of UFOs, their method of propulsion, and the origin and background of the beings operating them. And the annotators referred to each other as “Gypsies” and discussed two different types of “people” living in outer space. In addition, their text contained non-standard use of capitalization and punctuation and detailed a lengthy discussion of the merits of various elements of Jessup’s assumptions in the book. Finally, there were oblique references to the Philadelphia Experiment (one example is that “Mr. B.” reassures his fellow annotators who have highlighted a particular theory that Jessup advanced).

The book then fell into the possession of Major Darrell L. Ritter (USMC. Aeronautical Project Officer at ONR), who took a great interest in these comments. Major Ritter was also aware of the government’s short interest in anti-gravity research. Therefore, he felt that the remarks about undersea cities built by two groups of extraterrestrials (the L.M.s and S.M.s) were quite fascinating. In addition, there were explanations for mysterious ship and plane disappearances in the Bermuda Triangle.

The book also included an extensive commentary on the origins of odd storms and clouds, objects falling from the sky, strange marks and footprints that Jessup had written about, and many weird words (such as – mothership, home ship, dead ship, great ark, terrific bombardment, great return, great war, little men, force fields, deep freeze, measure markers, scout ships, magnetic fields, gravity fields, sheets of diamonds, cosmic rays, force cutters, inlay work, explicit talk, telepathing, nodes, vortices, and magnetic net) that were used throughout the book and which might be of some value for later research.

After reading, Major Ritter passed the book to two other ONR officers, Commander George W. Hoover (Special Projects Officer) and Captain Sidney Sherby. Both officers were intimately involved in the Navy’s Project Vanguard, the code name for the U.S. effort to develop the first artificial earth satellite. It was the spring of 1957, and 18 months had passed since the book had first arrived at the ONR.

After reviewing the book and the mysterious comments within it, Commander Hoover and Captain Sherby invited Jessup to ONR to discuss his book. As Jessup read the annotated book, he reportedly became more and more distressed because the comments about subjects differed from his writings. The person or persons who had written these comments had a good understanding of the current “myths” of UFOs, extraterrestrials, and other subjects, mainly the concern of psychics, cultists, and mystics.

Jessup became confused by thinking why the United States government was so interested in the scribbling from such a cluttered mind. As he read further, he came across a comment concerning a secret Navy experiment in 1943, and immediately he knew who had been responsible for the crazed and disjointed comments. Based on the handwriting style and subject matter, Jessup concluded a large part of the writing was Allende’s, and others have the same conclusion that the three types of annotations are from the same person using three pens.

Jessup then shared his discovery with the Naval Officers and asked if the ONR could have the letters. Next, they informed Jessup that a special edition of his book was being produced by them, which would include all the additions. Jessup consented to the new edition and made three additional trips to the ONR concerning this matter.

Jessup’s car accident and mysterious death

Soon after these meetings with ONR officers, a car accident happened with Jessup. At the same time, he was also experiencing marital difficulties. Because of this, he seemed pretty disturbed by the Navy experience after receiving the promised copies of his book, for which he spent considerable time adding his comments. These days, Hoover and Sherby attempt to find the elusive Allende (Carl Allen) but never succeed. Jessup was still confused about why the Navy was so interested in this matter. But considering this thought, he spent considerable time researching the details of the “Philadelphia Experiment.”

In the meantime, all his efforts to get back to Mexico had come up blank, and he now devoted himself to writing and publishing. First, he returned to his native Indiana and started publishing a small astrological journal. Then, in October 1958, Jessup left Indiana for New York to post business and, around the 31st, paid a visit to a friend, Ivan T. Sanderson, founder of the Society for the Investigation of the Unexplained (SITU). Over dinner, Jessup gave Sanderson the copy of the book he had been making notes in; Jessup, being visibly disturbed, asked Sanderson in great sincerity to read it and then lock it up for safekeeping—”In case of anything should happen to me.” Jessup was scheduled to return to Indiana within a few days.

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When he failed to return, his publisher became concerned and contacted one of Jessups’ associates concerning his whereabouts. His associate related that he had no information. Six weeks after his New York departure Jessup was located in Florida; apparently, he had gone there from New York and had been involved in another significant car accident from which he was still recovering. Jessup, during those following months, was in terrible spirits. His publisher rejected his manuscripts as being “not up to par.” His writings were drawing considerable criticism from all around the country. On April 30, 1959, two years after meeting with the ONR, Jessup was found dead in his car close to his Florida home. “A victim of carbon-monoxide poisoning,” a hose had been attached to his car exhaust and passed into the passenger side window.

Jessup’s death mystery

Jessup had killed himself or been killed, or someone forced him to commit suicide; it’s still unclear. Jessup’s death has been the subject of substantial speculation. Some of his friends have said that Jessup was not the type of person who would kill himself. Others had suggested he was murdered when he refused to abandon his UFO research. Rumors were then circulating about the “Men In Black,” the name given to government agents who allegedly visited several UFO researchers and “persuaded” them to cease their work. Other friends said Jessup was depressed about personal problems and had sent a suicide note to a close friend. However, the handwriting was not checked to see if it matched Jessup’s writing.

The truth about Morris K. Jessup’s death will probably never be known, placing him in that same murder mystery along with Karen Silkwood, John F. Kennedy, Martin Luther King, and other humans regarding whom certain factions in our Society would have an easier time of things if they were invisible or dead.

Views of Dr. J. Manson Valentine, a friend of Jessup

A friend of Jessup, Dr. J. Manson Valentine( an oceanographer, archaeologist, and zoologist), Said, “Jessup was distraught during the last months of his life and was reaching out more than ever to talk with me or someone who can understand his feelings. During these last months, Jessup shared his innermost feelings about the Philadelphia Experiment with me”. Dr. Valentine was probably the last person to talk with Jessup. He had spoken to Jessup on April 20, 1959, and had invited Jessup to dinner; Jessup accepted his invitation but never visited.

Dr. Valentine remembers Jessup relating strange things he had learned concerning the Navy’s Experiment. For example, Jessup said the invisibility effect had been accomplished by using magnetic field generators, called degaussers, which were “pulsed” at resonant frequencies to create a substantial magnetic field around the Destroyer. In Dr. Valentine’s opinion, Jessup was well informed of the alleged Experiment and had met with the Navy officers and scientists several times.

According to Valentine, Jessup believed he was “on the verge of discovering the scientific basis for whatever was happening.” Jessup explained: “An electric field created in a coil induces a magnetic field at right angles to the first, and each field represents one plane of space. But since there are three space planes, there must be a third field, perhaps a gravitational one. By hooking up electromagnetic generators to produce a magnetic pulse, it might be possible to produce this third field through the principle of resonance.” Jessup thought the Navy had discovered this by accident.

Involvement of Albert Einstein

The Philadelphia Experiment is weird because it forces our sense of what we think exists in a particular space and Time. And when we speak of freedom and Time, we invariably think of Albert Einstein. Jessup believed Einstein’s theories held the key to UFO propulsion; after all, Carl Allen(the sender of two letters) had confirmed that it not only was the key but full-scale research and experimentation of Einstein’s mysterious mathematical concepts were already a reality.

Albert Einstein conferring with naval officers
in his study at Princeton, New Jersey, July 24,1943. (National Archives)
Albert Einstein meeting with naval officers
in his study room at Princeton, New Jersey, on July 24, 1943. (National Archives)
Albert Einstein conferring with naval officers
in his study at Princeton, New Jersey, July 24,1943. (National Archives)
Albert Einstein meeting with maritime officers
in his study room at Princeton, New Jersey, on July 24, 1943. (National Archives)

On researching Naval employment records, we found that Albert Einstein was hired as a Scientist for the Office of Naval Research (ONR) on May 31, 1943, where he served until June 30, 1944. Further records said on July 24, 1943; Einstein met with Naval Officers in his Princeton study, just three months before the Philadelphia Experiment.

Explanation of the Philadelphia Experiment according to Science

According to Valentine’s views on Jessup’s explanation, this brings up the possibility of a fourth dimension. It is known, by abstract mathematics, that it is possible to have as many as fifteen dimensions. If they exist as a mathematical concept, they live in fact (according to Pythagoras). It is a widely held belief among scientists that the basic atomic structure is essentially electric rather than material. A vast interplay of energies is involved; this concept gives us great flexibility in visualizing the universe. If multiple phases of matter don’t exist, it would be pretty surprising.

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The transition from one to another world would be equivalent to the passage from one plane of existence to another in a sort of interdimensional metamorphosis. It is a case of worlds within worlds. Magnetism is thought to be the critical factor in controlling these dimensional changes. Magnetism is the only phenomenon for which scientists have no mechanical explanation. We can visualize electrons traveling along a wire to create an electric current and envision waves of different frequencies to create heat, light, and radio.

But a magnetic field defies mechanical interpretation. In addition, intense magnetic disturbances are always present when UFOs do their materializations/dematerializations. With these thoughts in mind, let’s see how the concept of a “World Grid” could be a critical factor in the location and function of the alleged Philadelphia Experiment.

Einstein’s theory says that Time is a geometric concept; therefore, if this could be altered, all of the universes would become available to us at any moment. So one method to cross the tremendous distances of space would be to change the structure of space itself; this could be accomplished by modifying the space-time geometric matrix. And the matrix gives us the illusion of form and distance; one method of changing the matrix is by modifying frequencies controlling the matter-antimatter cycles. These, in turn, influence our perceptions of things existing in apparent space-time.

In one second, we could travel great distances, for, at that point, the distance would be revealed as an illusion. According to a prevalent view, Time is the factor that keeps objects apart in space. With the possibility of moving from place to place in what is called “Zero Time,” both sites exist in the same place according to our perception. We can bring distant objects closer together by speeding up the geometry of Time. This is the secret of extraterrestrial spacecraft; they travel by altering the space dimension by bringing Time to zero.

Einstein believed that physical matter was nothing more than a concentrated field of force. What we see visually as a material substance is, in actuality, a combination (or four-dimensional matrix) of frequencies. Different frequencies combine in different ways, thus creating different physical masses. These masses seem solid to us because we are also made up of similar waveforms which vibrate within a defined bandwidth, and this bandwidth makes up the limited perspective of our visual, physical world.

Later work, research, and evidence

  • In 1963 Vincent Hayes Gaddis (an American author who invented the phrase “Bermuda Triangle”) published a book on Forteana(A strange phenomenon) titled Invisible Horizons: True Mysteries of the Sea. In it, he recounted the story of the Experiment from the Varo annotations.
  • In 1978 George E. Simpson and Neal R. Burger published a novel titled Thin Air. In that novel, a Naval Investigative Service officer investigates several threads linking wartime invisibility experiments to a conspiracy involving matter transmission technology.
  • In 1979 Large-scale popularization of the story came about when the author Charles Berlitz, who had written a best-selling book on the Bermuda Triangle, and his co-author, ufologist William L. Moore, published The Philadelphia Experiment: Project Invisibility, which purported to be a factual account. The book expanded on stories of bizarre happenings, lost unified field theories by Albert Einstein, and government coverups based on the Allende/Allen letters to Jessup.
  • Moore and Berlitz devoted one of the last chapters in The Philadelphia Experiment: Project Invisibility to “The Force Fields Of Townsend Brown,” the experimenter and then-U.S. Navy technician Thomas Townsend Brown. Paul LaViolette’s 2008 book Secrets of Antigravity Propulsion also recounts some mysterious involvement of Townsend Brown.
  • This story was also adapted into a 1984 time travel film, and the name of the film is The Philadelphia Experiment, directed by Stewart Raffill. Though only loosely based on the prior accounts of the “Experiment,” it dramatizes the original story’s core elements. In 1990, Alfred Bielek, a self-proclaimed former crew member of USS Eldridge and an alleged participant in the Experiment, supported the version as it was portrayed in the film. He added details of his claims through the Internet, some of which were picked up by mainstream news outlets.

According to writers, historians, and researchers

Mike Dash (a Welsh writer, historian, and researcher) notes that many authors who publicized the “Philadelphia Experiment” story after that of Jessup appeared to have conducted little or no research. During the late 1970s, for example, Allende/Allen was often described as mysterious and challenging to locate. Still, Robert Goerman(a writer) determined Allende/Allen’s identity after only a few telephone calls. Others speculate that much critical literature emphasizes dramatic enhancement rather than pertinent research. For example, Berlitz’s and Moore’s account of the story (The Philadelphia Experiment: Project Invisibility) claimed to include factual information, such as transcripts of an interview with a scientist involved in the Experiment. Still, their work has also been criticized for plagiarising key story elements from the novel Thin Air published a year earlier.

Observers have argued that it is inappropriate to grant credence to an unusual story promoted by one individual without corroborating evidence. For example, Robert Goerman wrote in Fate magazine in 1980 that Carlos Allende/Carl Allen, who is said to have corresponded with Jessup, was Carl Meredith Allen of New Kensington, Pennsylvania, who had an established history of psychiatric illness, and who may have fabricated the primary account of the Experiment as a result of his mental illness. Goerman later realized that Allen was a family friend and “a creative and imaginative loner … sending bizarre writings and claims.”

Other Studies

Some study says that the Experiment was based on an aspect of some unified field theory, a term coined by Albert Einstein to describe a class of potential ideas that we discussed above. Still, such approaches need to be described mathematically and physically, the interrelated nature of the forces of electromagnetism and gravity, in other words, uniting their respective fields into a single area.

According to some unspecified researchers, some version of this field would enable using large electrical generators to bend light around an object via refraction so that the thing became utterly invisible. The Navy regarded this as a military value and sponsored the Experiment. Another unspecified version of the story proposes that researchers were preparing magnetic and gravitational measurements of the seafloor to detect anomalies, supposedly based on Einstein’s attempts to understand gravity. In this version, there were also related secret experiments in Nazi Germany to find anti-gravity, apparently led by SS-Obergruppenführer Hans Kammler.

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Some theories also claim that the equipment was not properly re-calibrated, but the Experiment was repeated on October 28, 1943. This Time, Eldridge not only became invisible but also disappeared from the area in a flash of blue light and teleported to Norfolk, Virginia, over 200 miles (320 km) away. It is claimed that Eldridge sat for some time because of men aboard the ship SS Andrew Furuseth. Finally, Eldridge vanished and reappeared in Philadelphia at the site it had originally occupied. It was also said that the warship went approximately ten minutes back in Time.

Some theories say some witnesses reported a “greenish fog” appearing in its place. In addition, crew members complained of severe nausea afterward. Also, when the ship reappeared, some sailors were embedded in the metal structures of the boat, including one sailor who ended up on a deck level below that where he began and had his hand embedded in the steel hull of the ship, there is also a claim the Experiment was altered after that point at the request of the Navy, limiting it to creating a stealth technology that would render USS Eldridge invisible to radar, but none of these allegations have been independently proved.

Many versions of this story include descriptions of serious side effects for the crew. For example, some crew members were said to have been physically fused to bulkheads while others suffered from mental disorders, some re-materialized inside out, and others vanished. It is also claimed that the ship’s crew may have been subjected to brainwashing to maintain the secrecy of the Experiment.

Jacques Vallée a researcher

Jacques Vallée, a researcher, describes a procedure onboard USS Engstrom, which was docked alongside the Eldridge in 1943. The operation involved the generation of a strong electromagnetic field on board. Then demagnetize partly or degauss it to render the ship undetectable or “invisible” to magnetically fused undersea mines and torpedoes. This system was invented by a Canadian, Charles F. Goodeve when he held the rank of commander in the Royal Canadian Naval Volunteer Reserve. The Royal Navy and other navies used it widely during World War II. British ships of that era often included such degaussing systems built into the upper decks (the conduits are still visible on the deck of HMS Belfast in London, for example). Degaussing is still used today. However, it does not affect visible light or radar. Vallée speculates that accounts of USS Engstrom’s degaussing might have been garbled and confabulated in subsequent retellings and that these accounts may have influenced the story of “The Philadelphia Experiment.”

Vallée refers to a veteran who served onboard the USS Engstrom and who suggests it might have traveled from Philadelphia to Norfolk and back again in a single day at a time when merchant ships could not: by use of the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal and Chesapeake Bay, which at the time was open only to naval vessels. Moreover, the use of that channel was kept quiet: German submarines had ravaged shipping along the East Coast during Operation Drumbeat. Thus, military ships unable to protect themselves were secretly moved via canals to avoid the threat. The same veteran claims to be the man that Allende witnessed “disappearing” at a bar. He claims that when the fight broke out, friendly barmaids whisked him out of the bar before the police arrived because he was underage for drinking. They then covered for him by claiming that he had disappeared.

According to ONR Officers and Navy veteran

Officers at the Fourth Naval District have suggested that the alleged event misunderstood systematic research during World War II at the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard. An earlier theory was that “the foundation for the fabricated stories arose from degaussing experiments which have the effect of making a ship undetectable or ‘invisible’ to magnetic mines.” Another possible origin of the stories about levitation, teleportation, and effects on the human crew might be attributed to experiments with the generating plant of the Destroyer USS Timmerman (DD-828), whereby a higher-frequency generator produced corona discharges. However, none of the crew reported suffering effects from the Experiment.

The USS Eldridge was not commissioned until August 27, 1943, and remained in port in New York City until September 1943. The October experiment allegedly took place while the ship was on its first shakedown cruise in The Bahamas. However, proponents of the story claim that the ship’s logs might have been falsified or still be classified. The Office of Naval Research (ONR) stated in September 1996, “ONR has never conducted investigations on radar invisibility, either in 1943 or at any other time.” Pointing out that the ONR was not established until 1946, it denounces the accounts of “The Philadelphia Experiment” as complete “science fiction.”

A reunion of Navy veterans who had served aboard USS Eldridge told a Philadelphia newspaper in April 1999 that their ship had never made port in Philadelphia. Further evidence discounting the Philadelphia Experiment timeline comes from USS Eldridge’s complete World War II action report, including the remarks section of the 1943 deck log, available on microfilm.

Conclusion

Although there is no reliable and robust evidence in most accounts of the supposed Experiment, none of the allegations, reports, and research have been officially confirmed. Also, none of the evidence and theories have been proven mathematically and scientifically. So we can’t say whether the Philadelphia Experiment happened or not.

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But we might ask, Did the Navy make a Destroyer-class ship disappear and transport itself over four hundred miles of ocean in a matter of moments, or is this just some fantastic story? And if this is not just a story, why did they do it? We know from the results why the Navy might have wanted to keep things quiet. Governmental coverups are not new; they seem to come with the institution. Maybe we can conclude more quickly if we learn more about the last day of Jessup’s life or if we solve Jessup’s death mystery.

Learn more about the Philadelphia experiment

Learn more about the Philadelphia experiment – here are all the other information, PDFs, images, and letters of Carlos Miguel Allende to Morris K. Jessup.


Sources

  1. The Philadelphia Experiment.” Naval Historical Center of the United States Navy. 2000-11-28.
  2. “Carlos Miguel Allende or Carl Meredith Allen or…” The Philadelphia Experiment From A-Z. Retrieved August 2, 2018.
  3. “Information Sheet: Philadelphia Experiment.” Naval Historical Center of the United States Navy. 1996-09-08. Retrieved 2012-09-08.
  4. Dunning, Brian (2006-12-24). “Skeptoid 16: The Real Philadelphia Experiment”. Skeptoid. Retrieved 2017-06-15.
  5. Carroll, Robert Todd (2007-12-03). “Philadelphia experiment.” The Skeptic’s Dictionary. Retrieved 2008-02-05.
  6. Dash, Mike (2000) [1997]. Borderlands. Woodstock, New York: Overlook Press. ISBN 978-0-87951-724-3. OCLC 41932447.
  7. Adams, Cecil (1987-10-23). “Did the U.S. Navy teleport ships in the Philadelphia Experiment?”. The Straight Dope. Retrieved 2007-02-20.
  8. Barna William Donovan (2011). Conspiracy Films: A Tour of Dark Places in the American Conscious, McFarland. p. 106
  9. Moseley, James W. & Karl T. Pflock (2002), Shockingly Close to the Truth!: Confessions of a Grave-Robbing Ufologist. Prometheus Books. ISBN 1-57392-991-3.
  10. “Morris K. Jessup: Unwitting Pioneer Of The Legend, philadelphiaexperiment.crossingmymind.com.”
  11. Introduction to the Varo edition of M. K. Jessup’s Case for the UFO
  12. Roy Bainton (2013). The Mammoth Book of Unexplained Phenomena: From bizarre biology to inexplicable astronomy, Little, Brown Book Group. p. 461
  13. Lewis, Frank (August 19–26, 1999). “The Where Ship? Project: Though long dismissed by the Navy, the legend of The Philadelphia Experiment shows no signs of disappearing”. Philadelphia City Paper. Archived from the original on 2012-06-24. Retrieved 2008-02-05.
  14. Abstract of “Anatomy of a Hoax: The Philadelphia Experiment Fifty Years LaterArchived 2006-09-27 at the Wayback Machine by Jacques F. Vallée, URL accessed February 21, 2007
  15. The death of Al Bielek was announced on Coast to Coast AM broadcast by George Noory on October 13, 2011
  16. Adachi, Ken (October 14, 2011). “Al Bielek Passed Away in Mexico on October 10, 2011, at Age 84”. Educate-Yourself.
  17. Bielek interview with Art Bell, Coast to Coast AM Radio, Phoenix, AZ, 1993
  18. “Al Bielek Debunked”. 2008-01-14.
  19. “Invisibility Cloaks.” That’s Impossible. Season 1. Episode 1. July 7, 2009. History.

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