Artistic Illustration of Shri C.V. Raman Holding a Cube
Image 1: Artistic Illustration of Shri C.V. Raman Holding a Cube | Alamy Stock Photo | Unrevealed Files

CV Raman’s full name is Sir Chandrashekhar Venkata Raman. CV Raman was a great physicist in India. He is known for the intensity of his work in light scattering. When he and his student KS Krishnan passed sunlight through a transparent collector using a spectrograph, they observed that the light that passed through that fine collector changed the wavelength and frequency of the diffracted light. Light passing through a transparent material is called modified light scattering. The physics test on this was called the Raman effect or Raman scattering. CV Raman was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1930 for this discovery. CV Raman was the first person from Asia to be awarded the Nobel Prize. Know more about his life in this article.

C.V. Raman’s Birth

C.V. Raman was born in the Tamil Brahmin family of Tamil Nadu. Raman was a premature child. He received his primary, secondary and higher secondary education from St. Aloysius Anglo Indian High School at 11 to 12 years old. Raman did his post-graduation in physics by securing a top position at Presidency College.

Early life and education

CV Raman was born in Tiruchirappalli Madras (Tamil Nadu). He was born in a Hindu Tamil Brahmin family. His mother’s name was Parvati Ammal, and his father was Chandrashekhar Ramnath Iyer. His father was a teacher at the local high school. His parents had eight children. He was among the elder siblings in second place. He said that he was born with a copper spoon in his mouth because his father was doing an excellent job of Rs 10,000 at the time of his birth and was appointed as a Faculty in Physics at Narasimha Rao College in Andhra Pradesh. CV Raman passed the matriculation examination at the age of 11 at the Anglo-Indian High School. At the age of 13 passed the Intermediate from the medium of arts with the first position in the Board of Secondary Education of Andhra Pradesh.

In 1902 Raman Rahman joined the Madras Presidential University (Chennai), where his father was appointed to teach mathematics and physics. He completed his B.A degree from Madras University in 1904. He obtained his first degree from Madras University and won gold medals in Physics and English. When he was 18 years old, he published his first scientific paper on the fine particles of rectangular holes and their size, why they are so, and their tectonic edges.

Seeing Raman’s qualifications and his physics teacher’s riches, skill, and ability, he was encouraged by Llewellyn Jones to continue research in England. Jones arranged Raman’s physical inspection with Colonel (Sir Gerald) Gifford. Unfortunately, Raman often had poor health and was considered “physically weak.” When it came to going to England for research, he said, “I am going to die of tuberculosis.”


Raman joined the Indian Financial Services Center in 1902 and made his organization one of the best service organizations in India. Raman followed suit to study abroad and, in early February 1907, received orders from the Indian Financial Service to change exams. After this, he was sent to Kolkata in June 1907 as Chief Assistant Accountant.

He was greatly influenced by the Indian Association for the Advancement of Science, the first research institute established in India, which was founded for the first time in India in 1876. Raman’s article “Newton’s Rings in Polarized Light,” published in Nature in 1907, became the first article of the Institute. The work prompted the IACS to issue a journal, Bulletin of the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, in 1909, with Raman making significant contributions.

In 1909, Raman Rangoon went to British Burma to become a finance officer. A few months later, his father died of a severe illness, so he had to return to Chennai. He lived there for one year after his father’s death. Shortly after joining Rangoon, he moved to Nagorno, Maharashtra, India, in 1910. In 1911 he was promoted to General Accountant and went to Calcutta after serving one year.

In 1915, the University of Calcutta started recruiting scholars under the leadership of Raman Ji under IACS. Late Shri Sudhangsu Kumar Banerjee became the Director-General of the India Meteorological Department and became a Ph.D. scholar under Ganesh Prasad, the first student of C.V.Raman. He guided many students till 1919. In 1919, he got the higher rank of IACS. After coming to this institution, Raman said that this was the best period of his life.

Raman Palit was elected Professor of Physics at the University of Calcutta. This proposal was founded by the donor Sir Tarakuna Palit in 1913. The Senate was appointed to address the meeting checklist on January 30, 1914. Before 1914, Raman became the first Palit Professor of Physics as a second option, but the post was postponed due to the expansionist World War I. He became Professor Forever in 1917. When he reluctantly resigned as a civil servant in 1914 after serving ten years at the Raja Bazar Science College built by the University of Calcutta. His salary as a professor was about half that of that time. However, to his advantage, his terms as a professor were clearly shown in the report that he had entered the college.

In 1943, Raman and his alumnus Panchapaksha Krishnamurthy founded the Travancore Chemical and Manufacturing Company Limited. The company’s name was changed to TCM Limited in 1996, and it is one of India’s earliest manufacturers of organic and inorganic chemicals. In 1947, Raman was appointed the first National Professor by the newly independent Government of India. In 1948, Raman established the Raman Research Institute in Bangalore. Here he also became a director and worked till 1970.

CV Raman’s research

His first research on the description of light was published in 1906. He got acquainted with the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science as an Assistant Accountant General in the Indian Financial Service, Calcutta. With the help of this, he obtained permission to do independent research. With his help, he made a unique contribution to understanding light and sound—Ashutosh Mukherjee at Calcutta University in 1917 at Rajabazar Science College, CV. Raman was appointed as Professor of Physics for the first time.

Once when he was going on his first trip to Europe, he saw the sea was blue in his mind, he was curious to know, as well as he saw that when the airplane was flying in the sky, he saw a thing like smoke. I noticed that when the aircraft was moving in front of it, it was getting pinched. He researched the above events and, in 1926, laid the foundation of the Indian General of Physics. He moved to Bangalore in 1933 to become the first director of the Indian Institute of Science. In 1993, he established his Indian Academy of Sciences, followed by the Raman Research Institute in 1948, and continued to do the same work throughout his lifetime. He discovered the Raman effect on February 28, 1928, which is celebrated as National Science Day in the history of India. In 1954, he was awarded the Bharat Ratna, the highest civilian award, by Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru. He later disbanded the medal in protest against Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru’s policies on scientific research.

Scientific Contribution

On a voyage to Europe in 1921, Raman keenly noticed the blue color of the glaciers and the Mediterranean Sea. He was curious to know the reason for the blue color. Once Raman returned to India, he did many experiments regarding the scattering of light by water and transparent blocks of ice. According to the results, he established a scientific explanation of the blue color of seawater and the sky.

There is a fascinating incident that served as the inspiration for the discovery of the Raman Effect. Raman was busy working on a December evening of 1927 when his student K.S. Krishnan (who later became director of the National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi) informed him that Professor Compton had won the Nobel Prize for X-ray scattering. This brought some thoughts to Raman’s mind. He remarked that if the Compton effect applies to X-rays, the same should be valid for light. So he did some experiments to establish his opinion.

Raman used monochromatic light from mercury that entered a transparent material and was allowed to fall on a spectrograph to record its spectrum. Raman detected new lines in the range called ‘Raman Lines.’ A few months later, Raman presented his discovery of the ‘Raman Effect’ at a meeting of scientists in Bangalore on March 16, 1928, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1930.

The ‘Raman Effect’ is essential in analyzing chemical compounds’ molecular structure. A decade after its discovery, the design of about 2000 compounds was studied. Thanks to the invention of the laser, the ‘Raman Effect’ has proved to be a handy tool for scientists. Some of Raman’s other interests were the physiology of human vision, the optics of colloids, and electric and magnetic anisotropy.

CV Raman became a Fellow of the Royal Society of London in 1924. A year later, he founded the Raman Research Institute near Bangalore, where he continued scientific research until his death; his honest advice to aspiring scientists was that “scientific research requires independent thinking and hard work, equipment or not.”


In late October 1970, Raman suffered a heart attack and collapsed in his laboratory. He was taken to the hospital, where doctors treated him and told him he would not survive more than 4 hours. The doctors said that he lived among his followers for the rest of the time to live more. Two days before Raman’s death, one of his former students pointed out that the Academy’s critical journal reflects the quality of the ongoing science in this field and what science is contained in it. That night Raman met the management team in his bedroom lab and told them about the lab’s success. His wife wanted a brief cremation without procession until his death. He died of natural causes on November 8, 1970, at 82.


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