What is a neutrino?
Definition: Neutrinos are sub-atomic particles that are produced by the decay of radioactive elements, and are also called elementary particles that lack electric charge.
Neutrinos is similar to an electron, but has no electric charge, and has a very small mass, which can also be zero. Neutrino is one of the most abundant particles in the universe.
Video Explanation (neutrinos part-1)
Neutrino was named by Enrico Fermi as a wordplay on neutron, which is the Italian name for neutron.
Of all high-energy particles, only weakly interacting with Neutrino can directly convey astronomical information from the edge of the universe — and as far as we know, within the most catastrophic high-energy processes. There are three different types of Neutrino, each related to a charged particle as shown in the following table.
|Charged Partner||electron (e)||muon (µ)||tau (τ)|
Produced significantly in high-energy collisions, traveling essentially at the speed of light, and unaffected by magnetic fields, Neutrino fulfills the basic requirements for astronomy. Their unique advantage arises from a fundamental property: they are affected only by the weakest of the forces of nature (but for gravity) and are therefore essentially detached as they travel the cosmic distance between their origin and ours.
Like electron, both muon and tau are accompanied by neutrinos, which are called muon-neutrino and tau-neutrino. The three neutrino types appear to be different: for example, when muon-neutrino interacts with a target, they will always produce muon, and never tau or electrons.
Although electrons and electron-neutrinos can be created and destroyed in particle interactions, the sum of the number of electrons and electron-neutrinos is preserved. By this fact leptons (leptons are an elementary particle of half-integer spin that do not undergo strong interactions.) Are divided into three categories, each with a charged lepton and its accompanying neutrino.
Where do Neutrinos come from and where are they found?
According to what we know about neutrinos today, most neutrinos were born about 15 billion years ago, soon after the birth of the universe. Since this time, the universe has steadily expanded and cooled, and neutrinos have just kept moving. Theoretically, there are now so many neutrinos that they constitute a cosmic background radiation with a temperature of 1.9 ° Kelvin (-271.2 ° C). Other neutrinos are produced by frequent nuclear power stations, particle accelerators, atomic bombs, normal atmospheric phenomena and star births, collisions, and deaths, especially supernova explosions.
How to detect neutrinos? (How to find neutrinos?)
To detect neutrinos, very large and very sensitive detectors are required. Typically, a low-energy neutrinos undergoes several mild-to-normal cases before interacting with anything. As a result, all terrestrial neutrinos experiments rely on measuring a small fraction of neutrinos that interact with detectors of appropriate size. For example, at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, a solar-neutrino detector with 1000 tonnes of heavy water raises about 1012 neutrinos. About 30 neutrinos are detected per day.